Floor Function

Floor Function

Function f from \(\mathbb{R}\) to \(\mathbb{Z}\) such that for every real number xf(x) is equal to the greatest integer less than or equal to x.


  • The integer part of x is denoted by [x].
  • The relationship defined by (x) = [x] defines the basic model of the floor function.


  • The general model, which is translated by a step function is defined by the relation f(x) = a[bx] , in which parameter a characterizes a “riser” (or vertical jump) on the graph, and parameter b characterizes the length of a horizontal step or each horizontal segment of the graph.
  • Parameter a causes a vertical scale change of value |a| and affects the orientation—or steepness—of the graph depending on whether a is positive or negative.
  • Parameter b causes a horizontal scale change of value \(\left| \dfrac {1}{b} \right|\) and affects the orientation – or steepness – of the graph, depending on whether b is positive or negative.
  • The standard form of the general model is\(f(x) = \textrm{a}\left[\textrm{b}\left(x – \textrm{h}\right)\right] + \textrm{k}\) where parameters h and k characterize a horizontal translation and a vertical translation, respectively, of the graph of the basic relation.


The graph of the function defined by the rule f[x] is that of a step function.

The following graph represents the function defined by the relation f[x] = −3[0,5x].

In this case, the direction of the graph was reversed, as parameter a is negative. The graph underwent a scale change of 3 units along the vertical axis and a scale change of |2| units along the horizontal axis.

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