Multiplication

Multiplication

Operation that, to each pair of numbers called the factors of the multiplication, associates a new number called the product of these factors.

The inverse operation of multiplication is division.

Symbol

The symbol of multiplication is “×” which is read as “multiplied by“.

Properties

  • (a) Multiplication is a commutative operation.
    Example : 12 × 15 = 15 × 12
  • (b) Multiplication is an associate operation.
    Example : (12 × 15) × 10 = 12 × (15 × 10)
  • (c) Multiplication has an identity element.
    Example : 12 × 1 = 1 × 12
  • (d) Any number multiplied by 0 gives 0 as a result.
    Example : 12 × 0 = 0 × 12 = 0

Example

Consider this multiplication of whole numbers: 5 × 7 = 35
The numbers 5 and 7 are called the factor of the multiplication.
The number 35 is the product.

multiplication

In this multiplication, we sometimes call the number 12 the multiplicand and the number 15 the multiplier.

Educational Note

The symbol “×” appeared in a text by the mathematician William Oughtred called Clavis Mathematicae in 1631. The same year, mathematician Thomas Harriot (1560-1621) used a large dot “.” as a symbol of multiplication. In fact, Harriot used this dot to separate a coefficient from a variable, as in “6 . y .”

widmann   William Oughtred (1574-1660)

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