Implementation of rules to transform a mathematical quantity.

**Calculating probabilities**

Process of counting used in probability theory.**Literal calculation**

Calculation on literal expressions – algebraic expressions, propositions, vectors – according to certain rules and algorithms that are unique to these expressions.**Numerical calculation**

Calculation on real numbers according to certain rules and algorithms that are unique to each class of real numbers.

### Examples

- If Ω = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8}, then P(even) = \(\frac{1}{2}\).
- \(4{x}^{2}{y}^{2}\) + \(3x{y}^{2}\) – \({x}^{2}{y}^{2}\) + \(5x{y}^{2}\) = \(3{x}^{2}{y}^{2}\) + \(8x{y}^{2}\)
- 7 + 3(12 – 5) – 2(6 + 2) + 3 × 5 = 7 + 21 – 16 + 15 = 27

### Historical Note

*Calculation* comes from the Latin word *calculus* meaning *pebble*. Originally, shepherds had a pot at the entrance to the sheep pen where they tossed as many pebbles as sheep that left the pen to graze in order to check their numbers when they returned.