A branch of mathematics dedicated to the rules of calculation in the set of rational numbers.

In arithmetic, we focus on the operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication, division and exponentiation (integer exponents). In addition to these basic operations, there are also factorials and absolute values. This discipline of mathematics was later extended by the inclusion of the study of real numbers in the form of unlimited decimal expansions. Then we added logarithmic and exponentiation (real exponents) operations.

### Historical Note

This branch is probably one of the oldest in the history of mathematics, along with measurement and geometry. We find traces of it as far back as in the remains of the Babylonian and Egyptian civilizations.

The word “arithmetic” comes from the Greek word “ἀριθμός” which means “number.”